audioooo glossary

Welcome to the Audio Glossary. This guide explains terms from the world of audio and digital signal processing (DSP). Please note, this glossary is still a work in progress, and more terms will be added over time.

AU (Audio Unit)

Audio Unit (AU) is a plugin format developed by Apple for use on macOS and iOS. It allows for real-time audio processing and is used in a variety of audio software, including Logic Pro and GarageBand.

AUv3 (Audio Unit Version 3)

Audio Unit Version 3 (AUv3) is an updated version of the AU plugin format. It provides enhanced features and capabilities, such as increased stability, better performance, and support for more complex audio processing tasks.

CLAP (CLever Audio Plugin)

CLever Audio Plugin (CLAP) is a new open standard for audio plugins designed to be efficient and flexible. It aims to provide a modern alternative to existing plugin formats with improved performance and extensibility.

DAW (Digital Audio Workstation)

A Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is software used for recording, editing, mixing, and producing audio files. DAWs provide a range of tools for manipulating audio tracks, adding effects, and arranging compositions. Examples include Pro Tools, Ableton Live, and Logic Pro.

DSP (Digital Signal Processing)

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) refers to the manipulation of audio signals using digital technology. DSP involves the use of algorithms and mathematical functions to alter audio data, allowing for enhancements like noise reduction, equalization, and effects processing.

FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)

The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an algorithm that computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence, or its inverse. FFT is widely used in audio processing to analyze the frequency components of signals, enabling tasks like spectrum analysis and filter design.


Filtering is the process of removing or enhancing certain frequencies within an audio signal. Filters can be used to reduce noise, isolate specific frequencies, or shape the sound in various ways. Common types of filters include low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and notch filters.

Frequency Scaling

Frequency scaling is the process of shifting the frequency components of an audio signal by a fixed factor. This transformation alters the pitch of the sound, making it higher or lower while preserving the relative harmonic structure.

JUCE Audio Framework

The JUCE Audio Framework is a widely used C++ library for developing cross-platform audio applications. JUCE provides a comprehensive set of tools for building audio plugins, standalone applications, and mobile apps. It supports various plugin formats, including VST, AU, and AAX, and offers features like real-time audio processing, GUI components, and MIDI support.


Max/MSP is a visual programming language for music and multimedia. It allows users to create interactive audio and visual applications by connecting objects that perform specific functions. Max handles the visual programming, while MSP is the audio processing component.

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a technical standard that allows electronic musical instruments, computers, and other devices to communicate and synchronize with each other. MIDI carries event messages such as note-on and note-off, pitch bend, and control signals.

MIDI CC (MIDI Continuous Controller)

MIDI Continuous Controller (MIDI CC) messages are a type of MIDI data used to control various parameters in a MIDI-enabled device. Each CC message has a unique controller number that corresponds to a specific parameter, such as volume, pan, modulation, or expression.


Morphing in audio refers to the gradual transformation of one sound into another. This process involves blending the characteristics of two or more sounds, creating a seamless transition between them. Morphing is commonly used in sound design and synthesis.

Pitch Transposition

Pitch transposition is the process of changing the pitch of an audio signal without affecting its duration. This can be achieved by shifting the entire frequency spectrum of the sound up or down by a specific interval.


PureData (Pd) is an open-source visual programming language for multimedia. Similar to Max/MSP, PureData allows users to create interactive audio, video, and graphical applications through a visual interface where objects are connected to define the program’s functionality.

Sample Rate

Sample Rate refers to the number of samples of audio carried per second, measured in Hertz (Hz). Common sample rates include 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, and 96 kHz. Higher sample rates provide better audio quality by capturing more detail in the sound wave.


In a Digital Audio Workstation (DAW), stems are audio tracks or groups of tracks bounced down to single files with all effects and processing included. They simplify mixing and mastering by reducing the number of tracks, making adjustments easier. Stems can include drums, vocals, bass, and other instruments, helping with refining mixes, mastering, and creating remixes.

Time Scaling

Time scaling is the process of changing the duration of an audio signal without affecting its pitch. This can involve stretching or compressing the audio to make it longer or shorter while maintaining the original pitch and tonal characteristics.

VST2 (Virtual Studio Technology 2)

Virtual Studio Technology 2 (VST2) is a widely used plugin format developed by Steinberg. It allows for the integration of virtual instruments and effects within a DAW, providing a versatile and extensible way to enhance audio production.

VST3 (Virtual Studio Technology 3)

Virtual Studio Technology 3 (VST3) is an updated version of the VST plugin format. It introduces new features such as improved performance, better integration with DAWs, and advanced capabilities for handling audio processing and MIDI data.

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